Militia Radio Frequencies


The militia-patriot movement in America has embraced radio communications in a big way. Within the past decade, the methods and communications gear have evolved from basic CB or FRS radios, to now include VHF-UHF FM, HF SSB, and HF digital communications. This article focuses on some of the radio gear and channel frequencies utilized by various groups. Radio comms now play an active role in armed confrontations, as part of rump militia training, in outreach, and in organizing groups.

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Militant in Oregon 2016 using VHF UHF radio

Photo shows armed militant in Oregon using a VHF-UHF radio. A closer look at the radio display shows the channel frequency is…

The original source of this article is RadioMaster Reports.

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Zoom enhanced image: VHF-UHF radio of militant in Oregon 2016 shows Baofeng UV-5R tuned to Channel MURS 3 

An enhanced zoom into the above image shows the militant radio is easily recognizable as a Baofeng model UV-5R. There is a blue A/B button on the left side of this radio (obscured by the stock of the assault weapon) that selects which of the 2 displayed channels is active. Showing on the display, the channel name CPOINT2 is at top, and the lower line shows the active channel name MURS 3. The triangular symbol  at the lower left of the alpha numeric characters indicates the active talking channel: MURS Channel 3 ( 151.9400 MHz FM simplex ), which has become the nationwide primary MURS channel for the militia patriot community. MURS is the longest range VHF radio service that can be legally utilized by anyone without the need for a radio license.

Listening To Militia Radio Frequencies

SWL Short Wave Listeners, UTE utility radio listeners, Ham operators, and radio scanner buffs enjoy tuning in to unusual activities on the radio spectrum. When a militia activates its radios for a training exercise or mission in any given area, it is likely to pop up on the receiver of some radio listener. There are thousands of radio aficionados everywhere, they are in every county in America. Many tend to mutually share information about unusual activity and the frequencies they hear it on. This RadioMaster Report includes such information, along with validation imagery, some data gleaned from internet sources, and some captured through real time monitoring by anonymous sources close to the scenes.

Armed militants at Missouri 2015 demonstration with Wouxun KG-UV6D VHF-UHF radios

Armed militants at Missouri 2015 demonstration with Wouxun KG-UV6D VHF-UHF radios

Oregon 2016 standoff militant guards use Baofeng VHF UHF HT with long antenna

Oregon 2016 Standoff militant guards use Baofeng VHF UHF HT with long antenna

Militia Frequency List – Short Range

MILITIA PATRIOT CHANNEL FREQUENCY LIST - SHORT RANGE
BAND| CHANNEL |FREQUENCY MHZ| DESCRIPTION
=== | ======= | ============| ======= ======= ======== ====
UHF |HAM U975=| 446.9750 FM | MILITIA HAM SIMPLEX
UHF |HAM U025=| 446.0250 FM | PATRIOT HAM SIMPLEX
UHF |FRS 3 ===| 462.6125 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS PRIMARY
VHF |MURS 3 ==| 151.9400 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT MURS PRIMARY
VHF |HAM 42 ==| 146.4200 FM | PATRIOT MILITIA HAM SIMPLEX  
VHF |HAM 485 =| 146.4850 FM | MILITIA HAM SOUTHEASTERN SIMP
VHF |HAM 53 ==| 146.5300 FM | PATRIOT MILITIA HAM SIMPLEX
VHF |HAM 55 ==| 146.5500 FM | PATRIOT HAM SIMPLEX 
VHF |HAM 725 =| 146.7250 FM | MILITIA HAM SIMPLEX
HF =|HAM 10 M | 028.3000 USB| MILITIA HAM EASTERN
HF =|HAM 10 M | 028.3050 USB| PATRIOT HAM NATIONWIDE PRIMARY
HF =|HAM 10 M | 028.3100 USB| PATRIOT HAM NATIONWIDE
HF =|HAM 10 M | 028.3200 USB| PATRIOT HAM NATIONWIDE
CB =|CB 3 AM =| 026.9850 AM | MILITIA PATRIOT CB COMMON 
CB =|CB 3 USB | 026.9850 USB| MILITIA AM USB OR LSB 
CB =|CB 14 AM | 027.1250 AM | MILITIA CB SOUTHEASTERN LOCAL 
CB =|CB 32 LSB| 027.3250 LSB| MILITIA CB SSB SOUTHEAST 
CB =|CB 36 USB| 027.3650 USB| MILITIA PATRIOT CB 
CB =|CB 37 USB| 027.3750 USB| PATRIOT CB SSB NATIONWIDE 
The source of this frequency list is RadioMaster Reports.
Pacific_Patriots_Militia_Baofeng_Radio_Headset

Militant in the Oregon 2016 standoff show of force displays a tactical vest outfitted with radio and accessories. Baofeng UV-5R tuned to MURS Channel 3 (151.940 MHz) with add-on throat microphone earpiece and big PTT button.

No Big Secret

Militia training in southeastern area 2014 with Baofeng UV-5R and earbud

Militant in southeastern area during 2014 field training exercise with Baofeng UV-5R and earbud

Florida militant radio operator at field exercise in command tent with Icom IC-7000 HF-VHF-UHF and Baofeng radios

Florida militant radio operator at field exercise in command tent with Icom IC-7000 HF-VHF-UHF and Baofeng radios

MURS channel 3 has become the primary Nationwide Patriot Channel 151.940 MHz FM simplex. It is mainly utilized for initial communications, call up, rendezvous among the III% (threepers), militia members, and between neighboring groups of patriots. It is both a calling channel and interoperability channel. Initial call up may start on this channel and then might change to another mutually agreed upon frequency. This is a legal VHF channel that can be used by anyone without a license, and it has the longest range with typical Baofeng, Zastone, or Wouxun radios when using the longer antennas. Most really serious patriots have graduated from older FRS GMRS radios, but there are still some who are using the older FRS Channel 3 Nationwide Patriot Channel 462.6125 MHz FM simplex for this same purpose. This FRS channel has shorter range, but works with existing Walmart Midland, Cobra, Talkabout, or Uniden bubble pack radios.

Patriot Radio Channels. Frequencies for Freedom.

Patriot Radio Channels. Frequencies for Freedom.

There are some channels which may be widely published, and other channels which are kept private and not given out. Some radio users in the militia patriot community want to keep their frequencies a big secret. But more knowledgeable radio techs don’t see the need for it, since all VHF-UHF FM transmissions can easily be received with a common scanner or Ham radio. After all, most patriots and militia feel they have nothing to hide; talking on the radio is an exercise in First Amendment and free speech.

Tuning In To Militia Radios

Typical SDR software defined radio USB dongle interception of VHF FM signals of MURS transmissions on a remote hilltop (antenna not shown)

Typical SDR (software defined radio) USB dongle as utilized in the interception of VHF-UHF FM signals such as MURS-FRS-GMRS transmissions, set up on a remote hilltop

A nearby scanner listener simply pushes the seek button and the frequency is displayed on their screen within a few minutes. Using a modern consumer-grade scanner (in the $100 range), the process of intercepting a local transmission frequency is nearly instantaneous (less than 1 second). Spectrum analyzers, band scopes, or scanner seeking features such as Close Call and Signal Stalker (CC/SS), or Signal Sweeper make finding a militia frequency simple. A common handheld frequency counter device such as the Optoelectronics Digital Scout ($500) can grab a VHF/UHF  frequency within less than a second. Newer SDR software defined radio dongles (in the less than $50 range) that plug into the USB port of a smartphone, pad, or laptop can display the radio frequency spectrum visually in real time. SDRs combined with software apps provide instantaneous seeking and decoding of HTs for both FM and digital signals, over a wide range of frequencies.

No Secret Channels Either

The SOI standard operating instructions of patriot militia radio operators teaches never to give away secret channels, to keep some compartmentalized or covert frequencies, and to fly under the radar whenever possible. Some channel frequencies are considered public, others are considered private, and others are reserved as part of a rotating pool of tactical channels for missions. Practically speaking, the choice of which channel is utilized is often determined by the type and capability of the lowest common denominator radio owned by a militia team member. Anyone using plain old VHF-UHF FM who thinks they can have their own secret channels or maintain frequency comsec is creating a false sense of security that deceives only themselves. Radios send RF signals in all directions, not just to those who are the intended receivers of the transmission.

Typical handheld beam antenna capable of long range radio interception

Typical handheld beam antenna capable of long range interception and radiolocation of militia patriot tactical radio traffic

Even a small HT can be picked up by a scanner at a safe distance a few miles away. With a handheld beam antenna or a mobile unit parked on a hilltop, a militant VHF UHF tactical net can be monitored up to about 10 or 20 miles away, depending on terrain. Aerial drones or UAV can easily receive tactical militia communications at visually and audibly undetectable distances away from the action.

BaofengUV5R

Stock image of Baofeng model UV-5R, a VHF-UHF handheld transceiver, popular among militia

Baofeng: The Militia Radio

Beginning around 2012, the Baofeng VHF-UHF handheld transceiver (HT) rapidly became the field communication device of choice for militias. This Chinese-made import HT is extremely cheap, at around $25 to $35 per unit. Out of the box, it is capable of being easily field-programmed for Ham, MURS, FRS, GMRS, Marine, and other land-mobile radio services. It transmits and receives FM and FM-narrowband in the frequency range of 136 to 174 MHz on VHF and 400 to 520 MHz on UHF. Militants really go for the low cost, and the wide array of accessories such as: extended battery packs, range-extending antennas, headsets, and speaker-microphones. The ubiquitous nature of the Baofeng model UV-5R (and its variants) can be seen in many of the following images of militant activities.

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Militant at Oregon 2015 mine standoff using a Baofeng UV-5R radio with the add-on optional AA cell battery pack

Militia Radios In Action

During the mid-2015 militant mine standoff in Oregon, militia radio techs maintained VHF-UHF radio communications.

Oregon 2015 mine standoff militant at with Baofeng 5R-2

Oregon 2015 mine standoff militant radio tech with Baofeng 5R-2. Zastone radios were also utilized.

Both MURS and FRS radios were utilized. MURS Channel 3 and FRS Channel 3 were the calling channels. Several other frequencies were utilized for tactical and control point contacts.

The radio techs programmed radio channel frequencies using Chirp cloning software with a common channel plan that was utilized by those individuals who owned Baofeng and other brands of VHF-UHF radios. MURS channels were favored by those who had capability, due to its longer range, while more common FRS (Channel 3) radios were utilized by those who didn’t have capability for MURS.

Multiple monitoring reports from these and various other militia sites indicate continued use of these channels for interoperability and initial calling purposes. Generally speaking, all FRS and GMRS channels are widely utilized by militia and patriot groups in their tactical and localized activities and during field exercises.

Militia at 2016 Oregon standoff show of force with Baofeng radios

Militia at 2016 Oregon standoff make a show of force with Baofeng radios

Pacific_Patriots_Armed_Militia_Baofeng_UV5RB_Radio_NSKI_NA771_Antenna

Militant in Oregon 2016 using Baofeng UV-5RB with add-on NSKI model NA-771 VHF-UHF antenna to extend the distance

Some of the militants from the mid-2015 Oregon mine standoff action went on to attend protests during December 2015 in eastern Oregon, and then later showed up with their Baofeng radios (utilizing the same or similar channel programming) on MURS Channel 3 at the 2016 Oregon standoff.

Whether paired with sidearms or long guns, accessories add flair to the look and feel of battle-rattle gear. Accessories really make the outfit.

Militant dug in holdouts at Oregon 2016 standoff communicating with VHF-UHF HT radios

Oregon 2016 standoff – last of the armed militant holdouts dug in and communicated using VHF-UHF HT radios

Extending The Reach of Mobile Militia

The trend toward equipment standardization on VHF-UHF HT radios for tactical use in the militia community has led to a modular approach for vehicular mobile units. Simply by attaching an external magnet mount antenna (in the $15 range) to the top of the car or truck, the handheld transceiver becomes the heart of a versatile mobile radio system.

Accessories such as external VHF UHF magnet mount antenna and battery charger / battery eliminator with 12VDC cigarette lighter adapter, form a versatile inconspicuous vehicular mobile station with extended range

Accessories such as external VHF UHF magnet mount antenna and battery charger / battery eliminator with 12VDC cigarette lighter adapter, form a versatile inconspicuous vehicular mobile station with extended range

Cigarette lighter plug charger cables provide continuous 12 Volt DC power (in the $15 range), and the car battery has enough power to run a militia HT radio for many days without even starting the car engine. This vehicular mobile antenna setup extends the range of the militia VHF radio from 2 miles to about 5 miles, and provides effective communications to handheld or base units within a large area of operations.

Militia convoys may talk car-to-car, or engage in mobile patrols ranging much further from the base station, due to the increased communication distance. This alleviates the need for militia vehicles to maintain a conspicuous visual distance apart while travelling in convoy. The mobile radio system enables militants to coordinate a rendezvous point or carry out a mobile tactical maneuver quickly on the fly.

Michigan militia using VHF UHF radio in vehicle with external antenna

Michigan militia using VHF UHF radio in vehicle with external antenna

Mobile VHF UHF radios capable of 40 Watts transmit output provide more dependable communication at longer distances. Linear amplifiers which increase a handheld’s transmitter output power in the vehicle are also available. A militia radio officer in such an equipped vehicle, parked on a hilltop with a relatively inexpensive radio setup, thus becomes a very effective command and control asset (or radio relay station) covering a 30 mile diameter area of operations.

Militants in truck at 2016 Oregon standoff talk on VHF radio with earphone-microphone.

Militants in truck at 2016 Oregon standoff talk on VHF radio with earphone-microphone.

Pacific_Patriots_Armed_Militia_Baofeng_UV5R_Radio_Vehicle_VHF_Antenna

Militant in Oregon 2016 with Baofeng walks near a militia vehicle equipped with a quarter-wave VHF magnet-mount antenna capable of operation with a Baofeng or other transceiver on MURS, HAM 2 meters, marine, etc

CB Radio Use By Patriot Community

Militant Oregon 2016 standoff vehicle has CB radio

Militant Oregon 2016 standoff vehicle has CB radio

Militant at end of Oregon 2016 standoff waves flag on truck with CB magnetic mount antenna

Militant at end of Oregon 2016 standoff waves flag on truck with CB magnetic mount antenna

CB radios using AM and SSB on 27 MHz are still utilized for car-to-car/car-to-base by some militia mobile units. CB has remained popular over the years due to its superior distance range in hilly terrain, the ability to communicate within the rural community, and the ability to communicate with or monitor truck drivers when traveling. CB is also utilized for patriot culture and militia community morale; it includes extreme long distance skip talking at distances of 300 to 3000 miles. But, due to the erratic nature of ionospheric propagation in the upper HF spectrum above 15 MHz, skip talking is usually undependable on a daily basis for militia operations.

Most militia groups tend to have a local focus, and CB lends itself well to coverage of an entire rural county. The 27 MHz radio airwaves are not crowded anymore, since most of the older casual users in the suburban and urban population have long ago stopped using CB. An SSB CB radio in a vehicle can easily cover a distance of 10 to 15 miles car-to-car. This is more than double the distance of a typical Baofeng using a vehicle antenna.

This makes CB SSB an attractive ancillary communication method for those militia units projecting force over a wide rural area of operations in forested terrain that is not very suitable for FM simplex VHF-UHF line-of-sight propagation.

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Militant in Oregon 2016 standoff waves around a Baofeng UV-B5 during a major network media circus tour

Radios As Symbolic Power

C4CF_Militia_Armed_Guards_Baofeng_UVB5_Radio

Militant in Oregon 2016 standoff flaunts a Baofeng UV-B5 radio for media camera crew

California militants at 2014 rally show UHF VHF radios with speaker microphones

California militants at 2014 rally show UHF VHF radios with speaker microphones

Michigan militia at rally in 2016 using Baofeng UV-5R

Michigan militia show of power at rally in 2016 using Baofeng UV-5R on MURS and GMRS

In addition to the utility of free instantaneous off-grid communication, HT radios have turned out to be a great prop that exudes a powerful air of militia authority. The 16-inch long flexible VHF quarter-wavelength antennas (in the $10 range) are sold as an aftermarket accessory to attach to Baofengs and other HTs. These antennas are perfectly suited to be waved around for emphasis and are tremendously useful as a pointer for press cameras during network media circus tours. The wiggle of the antenna adds exciting visual accent to the look and feel of social media videos.

Prominent display of a Baofeng radio on the front of tactical vest rigs is just as important as the properly slung gun in the militia fashion accessory ethos. When a gun is not being actively displayed, the radio has surpassed the role of the knife in taking the gun’s place as a power statement.

The symbolic power of the radio stems from its ability to instill fear: it has the potential to project unseen levels of armed militia force to bear, upon a simple voice command, or at the touch of a button. The radio is not so stylish if worn under clothing or attached to the back of the vest. When no tactical rig is being worn, the HT may be grasped firmly and prominently in the hand while walking, to add vital purpose to the gait.

C4CF_Militia_Armed_Bodyguard_Baofeng_Radio_Antenna

Militant armed bodyguard in the Oregon 2016 standoff swaggers along whipping a Baofeng antenna

©2013 RadioMaster ReportsMilitia Guard and Sniper Nest Comms

C4CF_Militia_Armed_Sniper_Guards_Fire_Tower_Talking_on_Radio

Militant snipers in commandeered fire lookout tower at Oregon 2016 standoff talking on VHF-UHF radio. A government repeater antenna is visible on the side of the tower.

Article excerpt highlighting radio use in the watchtower sniper nest at 2016 Oregon Standoff

Article excerpt highlighting militant radio use in the watchtower sniper nest at 2016 Oregon Standoff

Militant sniper at Oregon 2016 standoff in commandeered fire watchtower uses Baofeng UV-5R radio and Simmons 20-60x60mm spotting scope

Militant sniper at Oregon 2016 standoff in commandeered fire watchtower uses Baofeng UV-5R radio and Simmons 20-60x60mm spotting scope

Oregon 2016 standoff militant sniper in tower with Baofeng UV-5R VHF-UHF radio

Oregon 2016 standoff militant sniper in tower with Baofeng UV-5R VHF-UHF radio

Militant 2016 Oregon standoff guard on fire watchtower with Baofeng

Militant 2016 Oregon standoff guard on fire watchtower with Baofeng

2016 Oregon standoff VHF UHF HT guard in tower

2016 Oregon standoff VHF UHF HT guard in tower

C4CF_Militia_Guards_Baofeng_UV-5R V2+_Radio

Militant gate guards in Oregon 2016 standoff use Baofeng model UV-5R V2+ radio with Nagoya NA-771 antenna to communicate with security perimeter and lookout tower (commandeered track vehicle in background is roadblock)

Militant Oregon 2016 standoff resupply wish list shows Midland radio (FRS) and Ham radio, along with batteries and other necessities

Militant Oregon 2016 standoff resupply wish list shows Midland radio (FRS) and Ham radio, along with batteries and other common items

Militia Logistics Resupply Comms

A logistics resupply wish list issued by the Oregon 2016 standoff militants includes Midland FRS radios from Walmart, a HAM radio, and batteries. These items were part of a generic list of other common items such as warm blankets, flashlights, snacks, first aid, domestic essentials, and food items. It also shows that FRS bubble pack radios were treated as a common commodity during the armed confrontation.

The contents of this wish list and the fact that it appeared on the second day of the armed standoff tends to indicate that these particular militants were neither preppers nor survivalists. They forgot to bring sleeping bags and food; but they remembered to bring ammo and Baofengs.

Oregon 2016 standoff militants pause for a group photo taken in the first few days of the standoff. Their To Do List board on the wall has SET UP COMMO as the first action item, showing their emphasis on radio communications.

Oregon 2016 standoff militants pose for a group photo taken in the commandeered government building during the first few days of the standoff. Their To Do List board on the wall reads “SET UP COMMO” as the first action item, showing their emphasis on radio communications.



Militant at Oregon 2016 standoff using commandeered government radio on VHF to communicate logisitics resupply with another militant in commandeered government vehicle. The kitchen and dining area was also center for radio dispatcher base station.

Militant at Oregon 2016 standoff using a commandeered government radio on a VHF government frequency to communicate about logistics resupply with a compatriot in a commandeered government vehicle. The kitchen and dining area was also center for radio dispatcher base station.

Police capture Oregon 2016 standoff militant on resupply run with commandeered government vehicles containing VHF radio on government frequency

Police capture Oregon 2016 standoff militant on resupply run with commandeered government vehicles containing VHF radio on government frequency

Government VHF repeater antenna on fire watch tower with militant in Oregon 2016 armed standoff

Government VHF repeater antenna on fire watch tower at Oregon 2016 armed militia standoff

Commandeering Of Radios

Oregon 2016 standoff militants commandeered government buildings and vehicles. The facility included a radio base station on a government VHF frequency (about 170 MHz), a repeater on the fire watch tower, and many vehicles with VHF mobile radios. The militants utilized the government VHF radios to communicate around their immediate area of operations and to arrange resupply logistics runs to nearby towns.

In one instance, it appears that the legitimate government users of that radio system may have overheard the militants talking about their resupply convoy to the supermarket and reported the vehicle location to police. The police ended up arresting one of the militants and taking the vehicles away.
©2013 RadioMaster Reports

Militia Frequency List – VHF Common TACTICAL Channels

 MILITIA PATRIOT ALTERNATIVE TACTICAL FREQUENCIES VHF
BAND| CHANNEL |FREQUENCY MHZ| DESCRIPTION
=== | ======= | ============| ======= ======= ======== ====
VHF |MURS 1 ==| 151.8200 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT ALTERNATE
VHF |MURS 2 ==| 151.8800 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT ALTERNATE
VHF |MURS 3 ==| 151.9400 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT PRIMARY
VHF |MURS 4 ==| 154.5700 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT SECONDARY
VHF |MURS 5 ==| 154.6000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT ALTERNATE
VHF |RED DOT =| 151.6250 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT ALTERNATE
VHF |PURPLEDOT| 151.9550 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT ALTERNATE
VHF |MARINE 72| 156.6250 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT BOATS
VHF |MARINE 76| 156.8250 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT BOATS

The source of this frequency list is RadioMaster Reports.

©2013 RadioMaster Reports

Michigan militia at rally 2016 with VHF UHF Midland GXT FRS-GMRS radio RadioShack Pro-651 scanner Baofeng radio, etc.

Michigan militants at 2016 rally with VHF UHF Midland GXT FRS-GMRS radio RadioShack Pro-651 scanner Baofeng radio, etc.

Militant in training exercise using FRS radio

Militant in training exercise with FRS radio

C4CF_Militia_FRS_Radio

Militant at Oregon 2016 armed standoff uses FRS radio

California militant showing loadout gear with Baofeng UV-5R with earphone and PTT microphone accessory set

California militant showing loadout gear with Baofeng UV-5R with earphone and PTT microphone accessory set

Pennsylvania militant showing loadout gear with Baofeng UV-5R V3+

Pennsylvania militant showing loadout gear with Baofeng UV-5R V3+ utilized on GMRS frequencies

Militia radio operator on hilltop position at a 2014 California rally action

Militia radio operator on hilltop position at a 2014 California rally action

Militants at Idaho 2016 rally with VHF-UHF radio

This militant at Boise Idaho 2016 rally seen here with a new VHF-UHF radio, was a bridge sniper at  the Nevada 2014 armed standoff (see next photos)

Nevada 2015 standoff sniper on bridge

Nevada 2014 standoff sniper on bridge. Many militants acquired Baofeng radios for VHF during this action.

Nevada 2014 standoff militant sniper uses Midland GXT FRS radio on FRS channel 3

Nevada 2014 standoff militant sniper uses Midland GXT FRS radio on FRS channel 3. Many militants acquired Baofeng VHF radios during or after this action.

Militant at 2014 Nevada standoff poses in battle gear with an FRS GMRS UHF radio.

Militia commander at 2014 Nevada standoff poses in battle gear with an FRS GMRS UHF radio.

2014 Nevada standoff militant with Midland FRS GMRS radio and Baofeng UV-5R VHF UHF radio attaches a flag to an antenna at the militia camp base station communication system

2014 Nevada standoff militia commander with FRS GMRS radio and Baofeng UV-5R VHF UHF radio attaches a flag to an antenna at the militia camp base station communication system

2014 Nevada standoff militia commander acquired a new Baofeng UV5R radio with Nagoya antenna

2014 Nevada standoff militia commander acquired a new Baofeng UV5R radio with Nagoya antenna

Nevada 2014 Standoff militant camp main VHF-UHF radio base station. Portable commo trailer with 12VDC solar power supply and antenna pole. Radio alarm security perimeter intrusion sensor devices.

Nevada 2014 Standoff militant camp main VHF-UHF radio base station. Portable commo trailer with 12VDC solar power supply and antenna pole. Radio alarm security perimeter intrusion sensor devices.

Militant at Nevada armed standoff 2014 unboxing a truckload of Baofeng UV-5R radios

Militant at Nevada armed standoff 2014 unboxing a truckload of Baofeng UV-5R radios. Zastone ZT radios were also utilized. Many militants acquired VHF capability at this armed confrontation, or shortly afterwards. This event can be considered a turning point for the transition away from FRS and toward VHF (MURS) as the new standard for patriot militia and III% comms.

 Militia Frequency List – Short Range UHF Common Tactical FRS GMRS

 MILITIA PATRIOT COMMON TACTICAL FREQUENCIES UHF
BAND| CHANNEL |FREQUENCY MHZ| DESCRIPTION
=== | ======= | ============| ======= ======= ========
UHF |GMRS 15==| 462.5500 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 1 ===| 462.5625 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS GMRS
UHF |GMRS 16==| 462.5750 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 2 ===| 462.5625 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS GMRS
UHF |GMRS 17==| 462.6000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 3 ===| 462.6125 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS GMRS
UHF |GMRS 18==| 462.6250 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 4 ===| 462.6375 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS GMRS
UHF |GMRS 19==| 462.6500 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 5 ===| 462.6625 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS GMRS
UHF |GMRS 20==| 462.6750 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 6 ===| 462.6875 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS GMRS
UHF |GMRS 21==| 462.7000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 7 ===| 462.7125 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS GMRS
UHF |GMRS 22==| 462.7250 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |GMRS 15A=| 467.5500 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 8 ===| 467.5625 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS
UHF |GMRS 16A=| 467.5750 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 9 ===| 467.5875 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS
UHF |GMRS 17A=| 467.6000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 10 ==| 467.6125 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS
UHF |GMRS 18A=| 467.6250 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 11 ==| 467.6375 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS
UHF |GMRS 19A=| 467.6500 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 12 ==| 467.6625 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS
UHF |GMRS 20A=| 467.6750 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 13 ==| 467.6875 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS
UHF |GMRS 21A=| 467.7000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
UHF |FRS 14 ==| 467.7125 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FRS
UHF |GMRS 22A=| 467.7250 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT GMRS
(Common bubble-pack FRS-GMRS radios)

The source of this frequency list is RadioMaster Reports.

©2013 RadioMaster Reports

Nevada_Minuteman_Armed_Militia_UHF_VHF_Radio

Militant at Nevada 2014 standoff uses VHF UHF radio to coordinate forces

Other Possible Militia Frequencies

Many militias pride themselves on law and order; they often make prominent public statements about their respect for the law. For militia patriots who don’t have a Ham Radio License, and who don’t want to run afoul of the law, there are only 3 types of channel frequencies available:

  1. CB (40 channels on 27MHz) see list here.
  2. FRS/GMRS (14+ channels on 462 and 467MHz) see list below.
  3. MURS (5 channels on 151 and 154 MHz) see list above.

Any other channel frequencies that militia may program into their radios are considered either freeband or bootleg operation. A good example of bootleg operation is the use of Marine VHF boat channels, which are widely bootlegged on by the general public.

Coast Guard remote radio tower in the Nevada desert

Coast Guard remote radio tower in the Nevada desert

However, the Coast Guard monitors and records some of the Marine VHF channels from their remote monitoring sites. While most Coast Guard remote sites are near the coasts and major bodies of inland waters and navigable rivers, there are other government monitoring sites which are far inland. Around big urban harbor coastal areas, Marine channels are recorded and monitored 24/7 by the Coast Guard.

©2013 RadioMaster Reports

Militia at Arizona border show Baofeng with extended battery pack and speaker mic

Militia at Arizona border strike a pose with Baofeng radio, extended AA battery pack, and speaker mic

Militants at 2016 Oregon standoff show Baofeng radios

Militants from Arizona at the 2016 Oregon standoff show their Baofeng radios

 

Militant at Oregon 2016 armed standoff uses an Icom ICF4011 UHF radio to communicate

Militant at Oregon 2016 armed standoff uses an Icom ICF4011 UHF radio to communicate

©2013 RadioMaster Reports

DIGITAL OR ENCRYPTED RADIOS

The average militia individual can’t afford the $7,500+ price tag of a 5 watt VHF HT radio that has high levels of encryption combined with frequency hopping capability; anything less than that (such as a $150 to $1500 DMR or P25 digital radio) can be intercepted or decrypted in realtime. The use of high end digital encrypted radios is very likely to draw down more unwanted attention by major adversaries than normal FM HTs would. Some militant groups or individuals are known to possess Motorola iDEN DirectTalk type PTT 900 MHz handsets and similar low power HTs (900 MHz or 2.5 GHz) which use FHSS frequency hopping spread spectrum. But these squad-level devices often are: too low powered for long range comms, undependable to keep paired/connected, jammable (the preferred thing for an adversary to do when they can’t realtime decode), too low-powered for ground clutter terrain at tactical distances, or can be decrypted by governmental interception systems who have backdoor access or high-end brute force methods. Other potential adversarial problems presented by inexpensive digital HTs are: Denial-Of-Service (DOS) attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, spoofing, bug exploits, kill-switch attacks, and radio-stun attacks. A kill-switch or radio-stun attack is triggered by an encoded signal sent by an adversary to a digital radio which causes it to either brick or go inert until it is reprogrammed by a tech (or receives the proper encoded signal to revive it). The user of a radio that is target of such an attack would just think that the radio is malfunctioning,  or simply unable to connect.  Susceptibility to kill-switch and radio-stun attacks is a significant vulnerability point among current digital radios. A few kill-switch transmissions by a suitably-equipped adversary can brick all the radios of the entire militia’s digital encrypted squad radio system within less than one minute. One particular type of common digital radio technology is susceptible to a type of triggered peer-to-peer DOS attack, in which the adversary sends commands to cause all the radios in the target system to repetitively transmit. This causes all the digital radios to silently and randomly jam each other, unbeknownst to the radio users. Since digital radios have PTT (push-to-talk) transmit controlled by the radio’s internal firmware/software (instead of the manual PTT button of a common FM HT), another type of digital radio attack  can cause the targeted digital radio to transmit constantly with its microphone live, providing the adversary with the capability to use the remote monitor feature to pick up nearby conversations surreptitiously. A typical adversarial attack might consist of a volley of targeted radio stuns on all but one of the radios in the militia group, combined with a remote monitor hot-mic on the team leader’s radio; this could effectively occur silently without the target users even realizing it has happened. Digital radios are essentially similar to cellphones in their potential for security risk and Stingray-type intercept intrusion. Consumer-grade, public service grade, or commercial-grade digital encrypted radios have a different and more complex type of comsec vulnerability than plain old FM radios; for this reason, many militant-patriot groups are quite wary of the security problems associated with digital radios.

Militia VHF-UHF Freeband Channels

Militants often don’t conform to normal radio service regulations, so it is not unusual for any frequency at all to be utilized for tactical or rendezvous purposes, solely at the whim of the one who programs the radios.

The most likely frequencies chosen at random by militant groups are within the spectrum capabilities of the usual Baofeng VHF-UHF radios (136-174 MHz and 400 to 520 MHz).

For example, one recent monitoring report from 2014 in Oregon intercepted a militant radio operation from eastern Idaho that had arbitrarily picked some VHF frequencies for their Baofengs which caused interference to an emergency medical service channel (155.175 MHz), as well as railroad channel 1605 (160.185 MHz) which is utilized for dispatching and coordinating the movement of freight trains.
©2013 RadioMaster Reports

A Nevada 2014 Standoff militant appeared in federal court in April 2016 and was ordered to be detained without bail. Part of the evidence cited were photos showing that he was "armed with a sidearm and radio".

A Nevada 2014 Standoff militant appeared in federal court in April 2016 and was ordered to be detained without bail. Part of the evidence cited were photos showing that he was “armed with a sidearm and radio”.

Militia procession in Utah 2016 with Baofeng UV-5R

Same militant from secret militia training camp shows up later walking along next to horse riders at Utah procession in February 2016 with Baofeng UV-5R

Militant at secret militia training camp in February 2016 on horseback with Baofeng UV-5R

Militant from the east coast learns to ride a horse at a secret militia training camp in the southwest in February 2016 with Baofeng UV-5R

©2013 RadioMaster Reports

Blending In : COMSEC BREVITY CODES

By blending in on the channel frequencies using procedures of existing commercial or industrial radio services, a militant unit may adopt radio gray man concept or chameleon techniques; this enables quite a good potential for hiding-in-plain-sight on the airwaves. Instead of investing in costly advanced digital radio technology, militia members simply use common open channel methods. This often involves the use of Brevity Code words when communicating in the clear to obscure the true meaning with terse phrases or slang terms that only other team members should know. For example, the Brevity Codes could mimic the jargon of industrial janitorial workers, hotel workers, or a pizza delivery service. Whether in the heat of an action or during common training drills, human nature often exposes the weak points in code-word verbal obfuscation. The risk of this is that savvy radio scanner fans listen in regularly and usually catch on eventually to Brevity Code comsec jargon.

Militia Hide In Plain Sight On Radio Frequencies

The more clever militia radio techs may set up their radios on certain Business Band frequencies where they can hide in plain sight. They can masquerade as normal business band radio services on these channels. Frequencies that militia can easily program into Baofeng radios are specific Business Band Itinerant VHF channels in the 151 to 158 MHz range and UHF channels in the 457 to 469 MHz range. Some of these are commonly called the Color Dot or Star Channels. They are also widely known by their Motorola event business radio channel numbers. These channels are often utilized by retail stores (such as Costco or Walmart), hotels, resorts, private security services, taxi, towing, businesses, and various radio rental services. It is easy to blend in on these channels because the normal legitimate users never use callsigns or any type of identification. It is possible for patriot militia and sovereign citizens to freely bootleg on these business band channels for covert or tactical purposes for many years without drawing any attention or suspicion:

 MILITIA PATRIOT CHANNEL FREQUENCY LIST
SHORT RANGE TACTICAL VHF UHF FREEBAND 
BAND| CHANNEL = |FREQUENCY MHZ| DESCRIPTION
====| ========= | ============| ======= ======= ======= 
UHF | BROWN DOT | 464.5000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
UHF |YELLOW DOT | 464.5500 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
UHF |==== J DOT | 467.7625 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
UHF |==== K DOT | 467.8125 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
UHF |SILVER STAR| 467.8500 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
UHF |= GOLD STAR| 467.8750 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
UHF |=  RED STAR| 467.9000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
UHF |= BLUE STAR| 467.9250 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF | RED DOT 1 | 151.6250 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |PURPLE DOT2| 151.9550 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 3 | 152.8850 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 3A| 154.5700 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 4 | 152.9150 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 4A| 154.6000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 5 | 151.7000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 6 | 151.7600 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 7 | 152.9450 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 7A| 151.8200 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 8 | 151.8350 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 8A| 151.8800 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 9 | 151.8050 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 9A| 151.9400 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 10| 151.5125 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 11| 151.6550 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 12| 151.6850 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 13| 151.7150 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 14| 151.7450 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 15| 151.7750 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 16| 151.8650 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 17| 151.8950 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 18| 151.9250 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 19| 152.7000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 20| 154.4900 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 21| 154.5150 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 22| 154.5275 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 23| 154.5400 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 24| 153.0050 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 25| 154.6550 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 26| 158.4000 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
VHF |BUSINESS 27| 158.4075 FM | MILITIA PATRIOT FREEBAND
*BUSINESS BAND ITINERANT CHANNELS

The source of this frequency list is RadioMaster Reports.

©2013 RadioMaster Reports

Militia at 2015 Ohio rally show of force with Baofeng UV-5R

Militia at 2016 Ohio rally show of force with Baofeng UV-5R

©2013 RadioMaster Reports

Militia Frequency List – Long Range

MILITIA PATRIOT CHANNEL FREQUENCY LIST - LONG RANGE
BAND| CHANNEL |FREQUENCY MHZ| DESCRIPTION
CB =|CB 36 LSB| 027.3650 LSB| PATRIOT CB SSB
CB =|CB 37 USB| 027.3750 USB| PATRIOT CB SSB NATIONWIDE
HF =|HAM 10 M | 028.3050 USB| PATRIOT HAM NATIONWIDE TECH
HF =|HAM 10 M | 028.3330 USB| MILITIA CONSTNL SIGNAL CORPS
HF =|HAM 20 M | 018.1300 USB| PATRIOT HAM
HF =|HAM 20 M | 014.1100 USB| PATRIOT DIGI CONTESTIA 4/250
HF =|HAM 20 M | 014.2420 USB| PATRIOT HAM 
HF =|HAM 20 M | 014.3150 USB| PATRIOT HAM
HF =|HAM 20 M | 014.3300 USB| MILITIA NEVADA STANDOFF HAMS
HF =|HAM 20 M | 014.3375 USB| MILITIA HAM
HF =|HAM 20 M | 014.3420 USB| PATRIOT HAM 
HF =|HAM 20 M | 014.3450 USB| MILITIA STANDOFF HAMS
HF =|HAM 40 M | 007.1100 USB| PATRIOT DIGI CONTESTIA 4/250 
HF =|HAM 40 M | 007.1100 CW | PATRIOT HAM CW USB 
HF =|HAM 40 M | 007.2420 LSB| PATRIOT MILITIA HAM 
HF =|HAM 40 M | 007.2300 LSB| PATRIOT HAM 
HF =|HAM 40 M | 007.2350 LSB| MILITIA HAM 
HF =|HAM 40 M | 007.2750 LSB| MILITIA HAM EASTERN 
HF =|PIRATE 40| 006.9000 LSB| MILITIA PIRATE BROADCAST 
HF =|HAM 80 M | 003.5450 CW | PATRIOT HAM CW 
HF =|HAM 80 M | 003.5880 USB| PATRIOT DIGI CONTESTIA 4/250 
HF =|HAM 75 M | 003.8180 LSB| PATRIOT MILITIA HAM 
HF =|HAM 75 M | 003.8380 LSB| PATRIOT MILITIA HAM
HF =|HAM 75 M | 003.8600 LSB| PATRIOT MILITIA EASTERN HAM 
HF =|HAM 75 M | 003.8880 LSB| MILITIA HAM SOUTHEASTERN 
HF =|HAM 75 M | 003.9300 LSB| MILITIA HAM 
HF =|HAM 75 M | 003.9330 LSB| PATRIOT MILITIA HAM 
HF =|HAM 75 M | 003.9500 LSB| PATRIOT HAM DISRUPTED NETS 
HF =|HAM 75 M | 003.9950 LSB| PATRIOT HAM NETS 
The source of this frequency list is RadioMaster Reports.

Militia Patriot Ham Radio HF Activity

Oregon 2016 standoff militant leaders travel in vehicle with Nevada amateur radio license plate and HF screwdriver antenna capable of wide area regional communications

Armed militant leaders of the 2016 Oregon standoff traveled in a Ham Radio equipped Subaru vehicle with Nevada Amateur Radio callsign license plate. On the right side of the vehicle is mounted a Little Tarheel brand HF screwdriver antenna capable of extreme wide area regional SSB and Data communications.

KTVZ video clip of Oregon 2016 standoff militants in Ham radio vehicle

KTVZ television twitter video clip: A Ham radio equipped Subaru vehicle carrying the armed militant leaders during the Oregon 2016 standoff. The video clip shows a VHF-UHF antenna on the left side and a Little Tarheel brand HF screwdriver antenna on right side.

Militant 2016 Oregon standoff Ham Radio vehicle showing Little Tarheel brand HF screwdriver antenna

This is the actual Ham radio equipped vehicle that carried the armed militant leaders during the 2016 Oregon standoff. It is an olive drab green 2015 Subaru all-wheel-drive model Outback PZEV owned by a licensed Ham operator stationed in Nevada. The image clearly shows the Little Tarheel brand HF antenna utilized for extreme long range regional SSB communication.

A southern militia radio operator in a field training exercise communicates using a Yaesu model FT-857 with LDG Z-100Plus antenna autotuner. The Yaesu is a 100 Watt radio capable of HF-VHF-UHF.

A southern militia radio operator in a field training exercise communicates using a Yaesu model FT-857 with LDG Z-100Plus antenna autotuner. The Yaesu is a 100 Watt radio capable of HF-VHF-UHF.

Militia radio techs are commonly recruited from the ranks of amateur radio operators. The level of involvement and commitment to the cause varies quite a lot. Some patriot-minded amateur radio operators participate actively in militia training or field exercises. A relatively small number of ham operators are willing to risk stiff fines or loss of their amateur radio license by using ham radios to assist armed standoffs, or while actively using radio communications to facilitate militant-related crimes. A larger number of hams tend to volunteer in a more aloof way to help set up radios or program the channel frequencies for friends who are militia or patriot group members. Most ham operators are cognizant of the rules against using codes or ciphers on ham radio. However, some militia-associated ham nets flout that rule and have been monitored using codes to try to obscure the meaning of messages on the air. The cipher rules don’t apply to MURS, however; a fact which contributes to the popularity of MURS channels among militants.

A number of amateur radio patriot nets, militia nets, and calling frequencies exist on the HF (high frequency shortwave) bands. The most active HF frequencies are included in the Long Range list above. These frequencies cover wide regional areas using ionospheric propagation, and many involve SSB single sideband voice mode using radio station setups with 100 Watts to 2 kiloWatts of transmit power and large antenna systems. Portable HF stations or mobile HF vehicle radios are utilized for long distance field communications. Regular scheduled nets for militia and patriots groups mostly happen in the evening, with their schedule times usually posted on their group websites. Most of the nets use SSB, but there are several which use ham radio digital modes such as Contestia 4/250 or PSK31. A few nets use CW morse code.

2015 Oregon mine standoff militants advertise for HAM Communications Technician to program radios, brief radio protocol, and be assigned to work. Gear list for all militants includes HAM Radio.

2015 Oregon mine standoff militants advertised for HAM communications Technicians to program radios, brief operators on radio protocol, and be assigned to work at sites. Equipment list for all militants involved in the operation included HAM Radio.  “Bring your own communications. Preferably Baofeng UV-5R / BF-F8+ to simplify programming and setup”.

Some of the SSB late night patriot nets on the 75 meter band (3.9MHz) tend to be raucous opinionated bull sessions which may often encounter intentional interference, jamming, or harassment by other ham radio operators. Extreme long-winded political or religious diatribes may commonly be heard on the 75 meter nets. Very little useful communication goes on with these nets, but they serve the important cultural purpose of stoking the fires of discontent and encouraging us-versus-them groupthink.

On the other hand, there are militias and patriot groups which engage in more organized HF nets for the purpose of emergency SHTF communications training. These tend to be less boisterous and more centered on discussions of how to relay messages or set up stations, or the subject of prepping. Some of the militia nets use obscure acronyms or innocuous-sounding names for their nets and try to blend into the woodwork with normal ham radio activity on the air. Most casual HF radio shortwave listeners (SWLs) and Hams would probably not notice these hiding-in-plain-sight militia HF nets, simply by listening to their mundane conversations on the air.

Militia Bootlegging On Ham Radio Frequencies

VHF UHF RDF Antenna with real-time Radio Direction Finding capability

VHF UHF RDF Antenna with real-time Radio Direction Finding capability

Many militia have also programmed their radios on Ham Radio frequencies. Militia use of those Ham Radio frequencies to transmit without a license is probably not too smart. It is way more stupid than bootlegging on Marine or Business Itinerant frequencies. Hams are everywhere; they tune in and monitor Ham band frequencies all the time; hams have frequency-vigilante groups who make it their patriotic mission to track down frequency-lawbreakers.

Ham Radio frequency-vigilante groups geolocate transmitters from many miles away

Ham Radio frequency-vigilante groups geolocate any transmitter from many miles away

Hams tend to be extremely protective of their own frequencies, and many have RDF Direction Finding equipment or beam antennas that can easily geolocate militia bootleg transmissions. Also, Hams have a nasty tendency to file monitoring reports to the government, which leads to hefty fines and costly legal processes for the perpetrators. But, there are 3 really big common sense reasons for militia not to use ham radio frequencies:

  1. Ham operators are very likely to notice militia operating on VHF-UHF Ham Radio Frequencies, and they often record the transmissions and send those recordings to the government. This isn’t a good situation for those militia wanting to keep a low profile comsec status.
  2. Ham Radio laws forbid the use of any cipher or code meant to obscure a message. Hams will record anything suspicious and report it. This kind of examination under a microscope can’t be good for militia comsec.
  3. Hams have extremely powerful radios that can easily jam militia tactical HT reception from miles away. Some Ham operator with a huge kilowatt radio may lie in wait, then decide to jam militia bootleggers at an opportune moment, thus blinding the militia comms in the heat of a mission. The pitiful Baofengs are no match against this kind of electronic warfare attack. It is like bringing a knife to a gunfight. Militia won’t win that battle.
Ham Radio kiloWatt transmitter

Ham Radio multi-kiloWatt transmitter linear amplifier

Militia Patriot – Shortwave Broadcasts

Shortwave stations, including both legitimate commercial radio stations and pirate radio stations, have aired militia patriot oriented programming. Shortwave has the potential to reach wide regional areas via ionospheric propagation of the radio waves. The most popular frequency range for clandestine shortwave pirate radio stations is 6.850MHz to 6.995 MHz just below the 40 meter Ham band, using AM Amplitude Modulation, LSB Lower Sideband, or USB Upper Sideband. The widely published militia patriot clandestine broadcast channel is 6.900 MHz, but few bonafide militia pirate radio stations have actually been monitored broadcasting on it. It is thought that it may only be activated in the event of some sort of uprising or SHTF scenario, since there is no need for it while the internet provides an excellent outlet for militia patriot podcasting and social media.

Logo of a pirate radio station

Logo of a militia parody pirate radio station

In early 2001, a Kentucky militia station using the self-assigned callsign KSMR broadcasted programming called “The Militia Hour” at a power level of 800 Watts on 3.260 MHz LSB and 6.890 MHz LSB. The program included coded group messages, in the clear militia messages, and a militia slant on the news. The militia station, run by a militia member who was a Ham radio operator, planned to also operate on 12.181 MHz USB but there were no reports at the time of it being active on that frequency. The station operator used threats of armed force when FCC notified the owner to get off the air. Some other non-militia pirate radio stations (such as one called Moron Lube , a parody on the phrase Molon Labe), which operated on nearby 6.9 MHz frequencies were not fond of the Kentucky militia station drawing heat that increased the FCC focus on their operations; so some of the shortwave pirates aired humorous parody broadcasts that imitated the style or made fun of the Kentucky militia station. After the KSMR militia station had been on the air for a few months, the owner of it was pulled over in an unrelated local traffic stop for having a tail light out. He responded by opening fire on deputy sheriff officers, and fled the state. He was on the run for over a year before being featured on the “America’s Most Wanted” television show, which led to his capture in 2002 and eventual prison sentence.

 MILITIA PATRIOT SHORTWAVE BROADCAST FREQUENCIES
HF|CHANL |FREQUENCY MHZ| DESCRIPTION 
HF|WWCR *| 003.2150 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 003.1950 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|PIRATE| 003.2600 LSB| KENTUCK MILITIA KSMR DEFUNCT
HF|WWCR *| 004.8400 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 005.0700 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 005.8900 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 005.9350 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 006.1150 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 006.8750 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|PIRATE| 006.8900 LSB| KENTUCK MILITIA KSMR DEFUNCT
HF|PIRATE| 006.9000 LSB| MILITIA CLANDESTINE BRDCASTS
HF|WWCR *| 007.4650 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 007.4900 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 007.5200 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 009.3500 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 009.9800 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 011.5800 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 012.1600 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 013.8450 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
HF|WWCR *| 015.8250 AM | PATRIOT COMMERCIAL BROADCAST
*COMMERCIAL STATION* SOME PATRIOT MILITIA PROGRAMS
The source of this frequency list is RadioMaster Reports.
Beam antenna

Beam antenna

©2013 RadioMaster Reports
militant
mil·i·tant /ˈmiləd(ə)nt/
adjective
1. combative aggressiveness in support of a political or social cause, and typically favoring extreme, violent, or armed confrontational methods.
2. having or showing a desire or willingness to use strong, extreme, and sometimes forceful methods to achieve something.
synonyms: aggressive, violent, belligerent, bellicose, vigorous, forceful, active, fierce, combative, pugnacious; radical, extremist, extreme, zealous, fanatical


noun
1. one who engages in force of arms.
2. a member of a militia.
3. a participant in a political or protest activity while armed, or in association with armed participants.
4. an aggressively active person.
synonyms: activist, extremist, radical, zealot
I am not only a pacifist but a militant pacifist. I am willing to fight for peace. Nothing will end war unless the people themselves refuse to go to war.” -Albert Einstein


militia
mi·li·tia /məˈliSHə/
noun
1. a military force that engages in rebel or terrorist activities, typically in opposition to a regular army or government.
2. a group of people who are not part of the armed forces of a country but are trained like soldiers.
3. a military force that is raised from the civil population to supplement a regular army in an emergency.
“Just able barely to mount a horse and ride about a little in the spring of 1866, my life was threatened daily, and I was forced to go heavily armed. The whole country was then full of militia, robbing, plundering and killing.” -Jesse James


patriot
pa·tri·ot /ˈpātrēət/
noun
1. An anti-government nationalist.
2. A pro-government nationalist.
3. A political extremist.
4. A freedom fighter or member of a resistance movement.
5. A person actively opposing enemies of their fatherland.
6. A militant separatist or secessionist.
7. A strong supporter of one’s country.

“Patriot: the person who can holler the loudest without knowing what he is hollering about.” -Mark Twain
“It is lamentable, that to be a good patriot one must become the enemy of the rest of mankind.” -Voltaire
“Patriotism is not a short and frenzied outburst of emotion but the tranquil and steady dedication of a lifetime.” -Adlai Stevenson
“Patriotism is when love of your own people comes first; nationalism, when hate for people other than your own comes first.” -Charles de Gaulle


COMSEC
com·sec /käm’sək/
noun
1. acronym for Communications Security, which encompasses cryptosecurity, emission security (EMSEC), transmission security (TRANSEC), and physical security of electronic communications equipment.
2. measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from electronic communications or to ensure the authenticity of communications.
“The President can make you a general, but only communications can make you a commander.” -General Curtis LeMay


freebander
free·band·er /frē(h)bandər/
noun
1. A radio user who intentionally transmits communications on unauthorized spectrum outside the limits of a normal channel frequency or band.
2. A technician who modifies or hacks a radio to transmit on frequencies beyond its usual design parameters.
“License? Freebanders don’t need no stinkin’ license!” -RadioMaster Reports


bootlegger
boot·leg·ger /bo͞otˌlegər/
noun
1. An unauthorized or unlicensed transmitter user of a radio channel or band of frequencies, who masquerades as a bonafide user through seemingly normal operational procedures, by using fake callsigns, or by mimicking technical methods.
2. A distiller or smuggler of moonshine liquor or tobacco who avoids taxes or regulatory laws.
3. A purveyor of musical recordings or videos, which circumvent copyright or copy protection.
“When I sell liquor, it’s called bootlegging; when my patrons serve it on Lake Shore Drive, it’s called hospitality.” -Al Capone

©2013 RadioMaster Reports

RadioMaster Reports wishes to thank several sources, which shall remain anonymous, for their contribution of monitoring reports, imagery, and detailed information for this article.


Disclaimer: Content provided in RadioMaster Reports is included for the sole purpose of providing educational information on a passive basis. This information may be useful to the public in the event of emergencies. Users of this educational information are solely responsible for their actions. 

©2016 RadioMaster Reports

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50 responses to “Militia Radio Frequencies

  1. Your pictures of militants and particularly of two people in a fire watch tower labeled: “Militia Sniper” certainly makes the sit-in/protest sound more dangerous and exciting than ‘ grandfather/rancher in a tower’..

  2. Excellent information!

  3. One, government folks have to work much less harder to know what’s going on when militant’s simply use the government’s radios to talk on.

    Wasn’t “ANYONE” there smart enough to realize the government has more than one of those radios, or that using the government’s repeater makes it real easy for local law enforcement (with a scanner) to simply wait until the well-meaning (but seriously technology weak) folks to just drive into town to pick up supplies?

    The local LEO’s must have had a really good laugh over that one, especially if the driver asked them “How did you know we were here? Uh, you told us you were coming on the radio.”

    Two, Baofeng UV-5R radios ship with a TERRIBLE standard antenna. If you plan to cut corners by buying a UV-5R in the first place (not a great radio by any means but it is better than a 1/2 watt FRS radio at least) – at least spend a few bucks and upgrade the standard crummy antenna.

    Three, if you plan to use handheld radios as your primary means of communications, at least consider upgrading to a 10 watt radio like the TYT TH-UV8000D (in place of the 4W Baofeng UV-5R). Not only will the power boost provide longer range communications, it already comes with a longer gain antenna and a long lasting extended battery – plus if you get the latest 4th generation model it comes with a cross-band repeat function, so no need to use the government repeater with LEO’s listening in!

    Four, for the truly needy, it is available pre-programmed from some vendors, since Chirp doesn’t support it yet, or you could buy one less ammo clip and purchase a RT Systems programming kit for it on Amazon.

    Some of the comm gear pictured looked like some of these folks need to ask the local Boy Scout group if they can sit in on their next communication merit badge class.

    • Government repeater systems and their simplex frequencies are now on P25 Phase 1 with Encryption. Some of the systems are being moved over to P25 Phase 2 now. We have Phase 2 in place at one of the facilities on the coast of Maine.

      Those repeaters will only be tuned for a specific frequency and will have either a 4 pack or 6 pack of can’s (Duplexers) on sight. The best thing would have been to install a Mirage DB-35 amp with a mag mount or a J-Pole antenna.

    • Ammo clip, eh?
      Let’s just say that gun people get the radio terminology wrong and radio people get the gun terminology wrong.

  4. Yenta of Sipsey Street

    Well researched article with a lot of info. Unfortunately, most of these comm suggestions will get you caught and quickly if .gov wants to. The references to ham radio keep popping up. Ham radios are not plug-and-play the way most appliance operators need.

    You need to consider how large an area can you control and how large and area can you influence. Militias are insurgents. A KW and large yagi antenna are useless when you need to talk up to 2 miles. If your AO is a small farm, perhaps a sound-powered phone between HQ and OP would work better. Certainly higher OPSEC.

    If your area has been an RF desert, just think of how curious .gov will be when they discover some nicely encrypted APCO 25 gear being used now.

    Think about VHF packet radio. 1200 baud on 144mhz works well. TNCs like PK-88 or MFJ 1270 are all over the landscape, unused since the early 1990s. With a dumb terminal, you have a much more clandestine set-up. How about using a 2M Rhombic, vertically polarixed for point-to-point? 5 mile path, 500 mw. No problem.

    Packet on 27mhz CB. Just saying. Ham radios are not expensive, but ccan require a long learning curve to know what frequency scheme works best.. (1.8 daytime–28.3 nightime)

    Think about power sources. 12 vdc, negative ground. Batteries? Abandoned vehicles may be out of gas, but the batteries probably work. A small solar-powered trrckle charger keeps you up and running.

    Too many militias/preppers are emulating the .gov. comm scenario. The ppix in the article show a lot of tacticool stuff. You could use hand-written
    notes and runners there with better effectiveness.

    An established history of ham radio usage may be the most important thing. They may overlook the people on the Lower Alabama Knitting and Quilting Net who have been spouting the same uninteresting drivel (coded speech) for the last 10 years.

    Just sayin’

  5. OK, now are we trouble!!! Anyone worth his salt will tell you that the use of GMRS or FRS frequencies to transmit using Baofeng UV5R type radios will get the FCC panties in a bunch. So these guys must all just be listening to those freq’s. As for the UV5R, I regularly use mine to hit a repeater 56 miles away with it’s 4 watts, and have done simplex comm up to 40 miles distant. Its currently trending at $22 on EBay (or approximately 3 30 round 5.56 MAGAZINES, if you are using that monetary system). They are cheap, rugged, and dependable radios. Check out youtube for a demo – guy runs over his with a truck, soaks it in water, freezes it, and then sets it on fire. Takes a licking and keeps on ticking. And, oh by the way, there is an easy way to set up transmissions so only a limited audience can hear and/or reply; so generally speaking, you can have somewhat private discussions on open freq’s, with just a little planning beforehand.

  6. Set up a simple local email account. By useing the draft folder you can send short messages to each other. It never goes out on the net so its pretty secure as long as each person erases the message after they read it. Make sure its a lan based email so theres no cloud useage. People use remote terminals or older cell phones that have blue tooth. Spook

  7. thanks for blurring any Identifying markings…being that my vehicle was in one of the pics I appreciate it. pretty good info as well.

  8. zed whackerblaster

    radio services allocated to other services.

    Nothing but a bunch of. “Combat whackers”

  9. NICE ARTICLE NOW I CAN BUST THESE GUYS ILLEAGLLY USING GOVERNMENT RADIO FREQUENCIES AND ILLEAGALLY USING GMRS WITHOUT A LICENSE BOY I CANT WAIT FOR THAT THEY WILL BE SORRY!!!!!!!!!

  10. Rampart Zicks

    Many of these posts advise more complex and expensive communications systems than MURS / FRS without any real thought given to the face that these are not standardized units with established comm plans. A dedicated core of radio operators with standardized equipment and operating with complex technology based message OPSEC is playing a game they can’t win. Is there anyone here who truly thinks that federal agencies are not capable of monitoring any of these mentioned OPSEC communication methods? If you have traffic that sensitive, consider wired field phones, message runners and 10 letter sigint cipher cards that rotate regularly. I wouldn’t really worry about, “we can use a couple of sandwiches at post 3” type of traffic being monitored, but to consider it for messages that actually need OPSEC. Remember the KISS principle and don’t try to compete in in realms where you are that far behind the 8-ball.

  11. UV-5R Baofeng use was also widespread in Ukranie war , both in hands of russian rebels and Privy Sector ukranian milita.

    Maybe Baofeng should now advertise these radios as field-tested and combat proven, just like Harris or Thales, LOL. Not bad for a radio you can purchase online at 30$ at sites like http://bit.do/BAOFENG-UV-5R-Dual-Band-Handheld-Transceiver

  12. Little boys playing army.

  13. Brainless!
    With little or no effort, their entire communications network could be shut down, or even worse, used against them! The thing is, people don’t always realize that just because something is hi tech to them, doesn’t mean that it is high tech to everybody. UV5R based communications are in the dark ages.

    It’s also important to point out that the Militia, is mistakenly associated with the preparedness and survivalist communities! Who for the most part have far more advanced communications systems in place then their militia cousins.

  14. Anonymous Coward

    One of the first object lessons of modern reality is “Using a transmitter lets everyone know how to find you.” In the case of most rump militias (also known as “Posse Idioticus”), its a matter of “letting everyone know how stupid…”

  15. A good chunk of my mothers side of my family here in AZ is in the militia and from personal experience I would say what I’ve seen of the modern day militia has simply become men (and maybe a few women) who could never get into the military pretending they’re in the military. Stay at the gun range and go play ARMA or something.

  16. For the most part, unless at least 3rd gen encryption is used, all ordinary radio traffic (including packet and PSK31) can be assumed to be in the clear and generally monitored. Additionally, none of the posted frequencies are in the slightest exempt from being jam jam jammed right off the air (as was alluded to). It seems modern “militias” are stuck in some kind of honor-bound third generation warfare notions, when in fact future civil armed confrontations will require fourth (and later) generation warfare strategy and tactics. Only that which is in plain sight has any hope whatsoever of concealment.

  17. JONATHAN MACKENZIE

    maybe the radios have a backdoor for the authorities.

  18. Does anyone have the shortwave freqs they are using at the Oregon standoff?

  19. This is one of the studio recordings of shortwave pirate radio station WHYP doing a parody of Anderson’s run from police mentioned in the above article. http://radionewyorkinternational.com/archives/pirate/whyp/Anderson-On-The-Run.mp3

  20. Well, if you use MURS channels for comms, make sure that you’re far enough away from Walmart, or some other local Dept Store, so when ya call for a position check, a reply won’t be for a clean-up in isle 5.

  21. Funny that the US militias use cheap chinese radios, while the CIA-backed New Syrian Army uses expensive ($1800) iCom P25 radios capable of encryption: http://i.imgur.com/Z22aTZb.png

  22. I guess according to this article George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, et.el would be considered Militants instead of freedom loving Patriots.

  23. DigiitalPirates

    Funny… They just pick frequencies out of the ether and use them. Just because they may have a ham license they think they can use whatever frequency they want. WRONG.
    Here how its going to happen when shit goes down:
    You militia groups can use whatever you want radio wise, any frequency, any mode you want, but people like me will find you and have you rounded up, detained and hauled off to some government camp somewhere..,
    I’m all for survival and freedom but you guys are not the answer when all you want is your own dictatorships when the US government fails. There are plenty of us out here who listen and take notes and never respond back on the radio, We are the ears you don’t think that can hear you. No matter the band, encryption, or mode, we will listen in, we will get the information you broadcast and we will pass it to those who will make your lives a living hell.

    • you mean kind of like your “listening and never responding” now? don’t forget – , tough guy.

  24. best artical on this i ever read
    all our iii% team uses the bofeng ham units on the MURR’s channel 3 and it works farthar than those pos walmart radios
    some a those idiots at the oregon thing made every one look bad

  25. sidewinder848

    Running a uniden bearcat scanner here in fl. Heard militia guys doing some kind of thing on frs last summer. Sounded like same guys popped up on murs 3 scan last month. Seemed like same kind of code words and call signs. Not normal.

  26. Ken Porter

    Hilarious! I especially enjoyed all the misspelled words and bad grammar in the comments section!

  27. There sure is a lot of ignorance regarding the word militia. The media has painted a picture and the non reading public has bought it. I will not waste too much of my time because most folks like their ignorance and anything to upset that apple cart causes them great distress. I will only point out that all Americans should read their Constitution since it is supposed to be the highest law in America (see Article 6, Clause 2.) They would be amazed were they to read Article 1, Section 8, Clauses 15 and 16. They should also read Article 2, Section 2, Clause 1 and both the Second and Fifth Amendments to the Constitution. Of course we all know the founders really wanted to create a national police force and standing army because they had such fond memories of the King’s. See Article 1, Section 8, Clause 12 and one that really surprises folks is Article 1, Section 10, Clause 3.

  28. The best definition of Militia is…
    1
    a : a part of the organized armed forces of a country liable to call only in emergency
    b : a body of citizens organized for military service
    2
    : the whole body of able-bodied male citizens declared by law as being subject to call to military service

    A better definition depends on the individuals involved as a group and are best defined as follows…

    THE ORGANIZED MILITIA – Includes National Guard and Military Reserves
    THE UNORGANIZED MILITIA – The average citizen prepared to act when necessary. Does Flight 93 ring a bell?

    When the colonies were under British Rule, the Crown sent the New Jersey Militia to put down an uprising in Jamaica which they did and were the only Continental troops to fight in the name of the Crown outside of the Colonies.

    In my opinion, while some Militia appear anti-government, that is a complete fiction. The Militia was, is and shall remain a “two edged sword.” In time of crisis, the Militia will bolster the forces of government in accordance with the Constitution to restore order and maintain the peace BUT when the government becomes tyrannical and begins acting against the will and the good of the people, then it becomes necessary to adhere to what the Constitution says.

    Working in government, I have had to take the oath of office on several occasions. On one such occasion I was asked point blank if I would ever take up arms to overthrow a legitimately elected government and naturally I said no and meant it. In recent years I have re-evaluated my reply and would say “no unless that government violated their part of the deal on which my oath was taken.” By definition, if government employees are ordered to perform a duty inconsistent with the law or Constitution, they must be the first line to defend the Constitution.

    In Peru, they once elected a president (Fujimori) who once installed abolished the Constitution and dismissed the Congress.

  29. Beofeng sucks… horrible gear. 73

  30. Wasn’t expecting to see anything from the standoffs. BaoFeng isn’t of course the most expensive, Most of us know that and know they are considered throwaways if something goes wrong with them. However, they do offer something for people who don’t have a lot of money, but want to be ready in case of a disaster or something, You know some of these remarks on here are really anal. Of course the guy with the $1,800 dollar radio isn’t going to understand that!

  31. Nice propaganda piece. That’s about as useful as it is. Imagine if you took the time to actually learn what Militias are really about instead of using buzzwords and BS like the MSM 😉

    • From my perspective the majority of “Militias” are jodys sitting around drinking beer and play acting that they’re Soldiers. I suppose I could be wrong though…

  32. anthony s. green sr

    IF THE GOVERNMENT/MILITARY HAS YOU IN A RFID PROGRAM PRISONER, HOW DO YOU GET OUT?

  33. The local militia here is on murs and frs. They do their weekend practice on frs using code words. They aren’t fooling anyone.

  34. I have agree about some of the foolishness.

    On the other hand the article and the discussion that followed did illuminate some important aspects of tactical communications. Mostly, to show how vulnerable they are to anyone who has some resources.

    Let’s face it, in our age, militia is not likely to be much of a force against government tyranny. I and some of the people who weighed in here see preparations of arms and communications and other such things as being much more effective against chaos, thuggery and other such things that could crop up and endanger our communities during a breakdown of social order. For these purposes, groups of organized, armed citizens may play an effective role even if they are not very technologically sophisticated. If, that is, they are moral and don’t become part of the problem.

    But I doubt that a citizen militia can any longer be a check against governmental tyranny, with one very important exception. And that is the fact that an organized force of armed citizens who stands up to a tyrannical government forces the government to either take lives or back down. In short, it ups the ante. IF the cause is noble and IF it is popularly KNOWN to be so, and If the armed citizens are willing to sacrifice their lives in this way, they might inspire a wider protest against the tyranny. This was essentially the value of what those patriots did at Lexington Green against the British. Even though they were beat, their sacrifices inspired their countrymen to rise up. If there was any value in what those fellows did in Oregon it could be that. Just as it was in the American Revolution, this can be a very powerful thing. But it is a very different thing than thinking that a militia can be militarily effective against a modern government with all their military forces, materials, and technology.

  35. You make a mistake in picture BEAM ANTENNA.
    it is CUBICAL QUAD ANTENNA MADE IN SOUTH FRANCE.
    Why we did not see your sources…

  36. jerry2135@yahoo.com

    What a bunch of morons. It would take any radio team 30 seconds to figure out exactly where you are. Press the key, bingo, I found you.

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